Fill up the 3 gallon container and pour the 3 gallons into the 5 gallon container.
Then, fill the 3 gallon container back up, and pour it into the 5 gallon container.
The 3 gallon container will have 1 gallon left.
Empty the 5 gallon container.
Pour the remining 1 gallon into the 5 gallon container.
Then fill the 3 gallon container back up and pour it into the 5 gallon container.
Thus, you have 4 gallons.
First think who will operate each bulb, obviously person #2 will do all the even numbers, and say person #10 will operate all the bulbs that end in a zero. So who would operate for example bulb 48: Persons numbered: 1 & 48, 2 & 24, 3 & 16, 4 & 12, 6 & 8 ........ That is all the factors (numbers by which 48 is divisible) will be in pairs. This means that for every person who switches a bulb on there will be someone to switch it off. This willl result in the bulb being back at it's original state. So why aren't all the bulbs off? Think of bulb 36:- The factors are: 1 & 36, 2 & 13, 6 & 6 Well in this case whilst all the factors are in pairs the number 6 is paired with it's self. Clearly the sixth person will only flick the bulb once and so the pairs don't cancel. This is true of all the square numbers. There are 10 square numbers between 1 and 100 (1, 4, 9, 16, 25, 36, 49, 64, 81 & 100) hence 10 bulbs remain on.
Most people seem to think that the thing to do is weight six coins against six coins, but if you think about it, this would yield you no information concerning the whereabouts of the only different coin. As we already know that one side will be heavier than the other. So that the following plan can be followed, let us number the coins from 1 to 12. For the first weighing let us put on the left pan coins 1,2,3,4 and on the right pan coins 5,6,7,8. There are two possibilities. Either they balance, or they don't. If they balance, then the different coin is in the group 9,10,11,12. So for our second weighing we would put 1,2 in the left pan and 9,10 on the right. If these balance then the different coin is either 11 or 12. Weigh coin 1 against 11. If they balance, the different coin is number 12. If they do not balance, then 11 is the different coin. If 1,2 vs 9,10 do not balance, then the different coin is either 9 or 10. Again, weigh 1 against 9. If they balance, the different coin is number 10, otherwise it is number 9. That was the easy part. What if the first weighing 1,2,3,4 vs 5,6,7,8 does not balance? Then any one of these coins could be the different coin. Now, in order to proceed, we must keep track of which side is heavy for each of the following weighings. Suppose that 5,6,7,8 is the heavy side. We now weigh 1,5,6 against 2,7,8. If they balance, then the different coin is either 3 or 4. Weigh 4 against 9, a known good coin. If they balance then the different coin is 3, otherwise it is 4. Now, if 1,5,6 vs 2,7,8 does not balance, and 2,7,8 is the heavy side, then either 7 or 8 is a different, heavy coin, or 1 is a different, light coin. For the third weighing, weigh 7 against 8. Whichever side is heavy is the different coin. If they balance, then 1 is the different coin. Should the weighing of 1,5, 6 vs 2,7,8 show 1,5,6 to be the heavy side, then either 5 or 6 is a different heavy coin or 2 is a light different coin. Weigh 5 against 6. The heavier one is the different coin. If they balance, then 2 is a different light coin.
Inless some one can tell me a way that 2 prisoners, at some point, don't out number the guards whether they are just dropping off and still in the boat or actually on land (because even if they are just dropping off and remain in the boat they are still on the other side of the river) I conclude this to be impossible. Please let me know an alternative if you figure one out because i'm stumped.
Mary is not a nurse. The way to solve this riddle, is to consider statements 4, 5, and 6 and create a chart of all possible true and false answers. Next, fill in the chart according to statements 1 through 3. You will discover that there is only one line where only one of statements one, two and three are true. Thus, it is determined that: Statement 4 and 5 are false and statement 6 is true.